New research method shows that the material likely comes from northern Italy — ScienceDaily

The virtually 11 cm excessive figurine from Willendorf is without doubt one of the most essential examples of early artwork in Europe. It’s made from a rock referred to as “oolite” which isn’t present in or round Willendorf. A analysis crew led by the anthropologist Gerhard Weber from the College of Vienna and the 2 geologists Alexander Lukeneder and Mathias Harzhauser in addition to the prehistorian Walpurga Antl-Weiser from the Pure Historical past Museum Vienna have now discovered with the assistance of high-resolution tomographic photographs that the fabric from which the Venus was carved possible comes from northern Italy. This sheds new mild on the exceptional mobility of the primary trendy people south and north of the Alps. The outcomes at present seem in Scientific Studies.

The Venus von Willendorf will not be solely particular by way of its design, but in addition by way of its materials. Whereas different Venus figures are normally made from ivory or bone, generally additionally of various stones, oolite was used for the Decrease Austrian Venus, which is exclusive for such cult objects. The figurine discovered within the Wachau in 1908 and on show within the Pure Historical past Museum in Vienna has to date solely been examined from the surface. Now, greater than a 100 years later, anthropologist Gerhard Weber from the College of Vienna has used a brand new technique to look at its inside: micro-computed tomography. Throughout a number of passes, the scientists obtained photographs with a decision of as much as 11.5 micrometres — a top quality that’s in any other case solely seen below a microscope. The primary perception gained is: “Venus doesn’t look uniform in any respect on the within. A particular property that might be used to find out its origin,” says the anthropologist.

Together with the 2 geologists Alexander Lukeneder and Mathias Harzhauser from the Pure Historical past Museum in Vienna, who had beforehand labored with oolites, the crew procured comparative samples from Austria and Europe and evaluated them. A fancy challenge: Rock samples from France to japanese Ukraine, from Germany to Sicily had been obtained, sawn up and examined below a microscope. The crew was supported by the state of Decrease Austria, which supplied funds for the time-consuming analyses.

The within additionally offers details about the surface

The tomographic knowledge from the Venus confirmed that the sediments had been deposited within the rocks in several densities and sizes. In between there have been additionally small remnants of shells and 6 very dense, bigger grains, so-called limonites. The latter explains the beforehand mysterious hemispherical cavities on the floor of Venus with the identical diameter: “The laborious limonites in all probability broke out when the creator of the Venus was carving it,” explains Weber: “Within the case of the Venus navel, he then apparently made it a advantage out of necessity.”

One other discovering: The Venus oolite is porous as a result of the cores of the thousands and thousands of globules (ooides) of which it’s comprised had dissolved. This can be a nice clarification for why the resourceful sculptor selected this materials 30,000 years in the past: It’s a lot simpler to work with. The scientists additionally recognized a tiny shell remnant, simply 2.5 millimetres lengthy, and dated it to the Jurassic interval. This dominated out all different potential deposits of the rock from the a lot later Miocene geological period, corresponding to these within the close by Vienna Basin.

A great distance for that point

The analysis crew additionally analysed the grain sizes of the opposite samples. Lots of, generally even hundreds of grains had been marked and measured with picture processing packages and even manually. Not one of the samples inside a 200-kilometer radius of Willendorf even remotely matched. The evaluation lastly confirmed that the samples from the Venus had been statistically indistinguishable from samples from a location in northern Italy close to Lake Garda. That is exceptional as a result of it signifies that the Venus (or a minimum of its materials) began a journey from south of the Alps to the Danube north of the Alps.

“Folks within the Gravettian — the software tradition of the time — appeared for and inhabited beneficial places. When the local weather or the prey scenario modified, they moved on, ideally alongside rivers,” explains Gerhard Weber. Such a journey might have taken generations.

One of many two potential routes from the south to the north would lead across the Alps and into the Pannonian Plain and was described in simulations by different researchers a number of years in the past. The opposite technique to get from Lake Garda to the Wachau could be through the Alps. Whether or not this was potential greater than 30,000 years in the past is unclear as a result of local weather deterioration that started at the moment. This might be a relatively unbelievable variant if there had already been steady glaciers at the moment. Nevertheless, the 730 km lengthy path alongside the Etsch, the Inn and the Danube had at all times been under 1,000 meters above sea stage, aside from 35 kilometres at Lake Reschen.

Potential, however much less possible, connection to japanese Ukraine

The statistics clearly level to northern Italy because the origin of the Venus oolite. However, there’s one other fascinating place for the origin of the rock. It’s in japanese Ukraine, greater than 1,600 kilometres linear distance from Willendorf. The samples there don’t match as clearly as these from Italy, however higher than all the remainder of the pattern. An fascinating connection right here: Venus figures had been present in close by southern Russia, that are considerably youthful, however look similar to the Venus present in Austria. Genetic outcomes additionally present that individuals in Central and Jap Europe had been linked to at least one one other at the moment.

The thrilling story of the Decrease Austrian Venus might be continued. Just a few systematic research have to date handled the existence of early people on this time-frame within the Alpine area, and with their mobility. The well-known “Ötzi,” for instance, solely comes into play a lot later, particularly 5,300 years in the past. “We wish to use these Venus outcomes and our new Vienna analysis community “Human Evolution and Archaeological Sciences,” in cooperation with anthropology, archaeology and different disciplines, to additional make clear early historical past within the Alpine area,” concludes Weber.

Anglers need to report, release tagged northern pike caught in Utah Lake — and kill the rest

Provo — As a part of an ongoing research launched two years in the past, the Utah Division of Wildlife Assets continues to be asking anglers to report and launch any tagged northern pike they catch in Utah Lake. And, as a result of the invasive fish had been positioned in Utah Lake illegally, anglers should kill any northern pike they catch that do not have a tag.

Northern pike, with its jaw open, lying on an ice-covered lake

DWR biologists began tagging a few of the northern pike in Utah Lake and its tributaries in February 2020 as a part of a research to study extra concerning the seasonal places and actions of juvenile and grownup pike in Utah Lake, the Provo River, Hobble Creek and the Spanish Fork River. The research is predicted to run for at the very least 5 years (till 2025).

Since northern pike sometimes spawn when the ice begins to soften, anglers could catch extra of the invasive fish at Utah Lake this time of 12 months.

The tagged northern pike have skinny, pink items of plastic connected to them. Tagged fish have been implanted with transmitters so biologists can monitor them utilizing GPS know-how. Surgical scars must be seen on their underside within the unlikely occasion that the exterior tag is dislodged.

“We’re asking anglers to launch pike which have these tags as a result of the transmitters which can be within the fish allow us to trace their actions,” DWR Central Area Native Aquatics Biologist Keith Lawrence mentioned. “Monitoring their actions will assist us develop a monitoring and management program for northern pike sooner or later, which is able to assist threatened June suckers.”

For those who catch a tagged northern pike in Utah Lake or one in all its tributaries, you must do the next:


  • Name DWR native fish biologist Dale Fonken at 503-730-9424

  • Report the date and actual location the place you caught the fish

  • Report the tag quantity

  • Launch the fish unhurt

As previously, if you happen to catch a pike that does not have a tag, you have to take away the fish from the water and kill it.

“In that case, we all the time like to listen to exactly the place and when these fish had been caught. The scale of the fish is all the time good info as properly,” Lawrence mentioned. “If a tagged pike inadvertently dies, we might nonetheless prefer to get better the fish in case the transmitter may be reused, so we ask people to tell us if that occurs. We might like to have the fish or tag dropped at our workplace in Springville, however we are going to gladly make preparations to choose it up from the angler.”

Northern pike had been first detected by the DWR in Utah Lake in 2011. As a result of pike are predatory and reproduce quickly, biologists are apprehensive concerning the impact they may have on a few of the different fish species within the lake. June suckers are of explicit concern resulting from their precarious standing, however pike have the potential to affect sportfish within the lake reminiscent of walleye, white bass and yellow perch.

June suckers, that are discovered solely in Utah Lake, had been downlisted from endangered to threatened in December 2020, an enormous accomplishment and main milestone of their restoration. Their continued restoration and eventual delisting from the Endangered Species Act could possibly be jeopardized if the variety of pike within the lake expands to unrestricted ranges.